Personal Certificate Import Utility for Pocket PC 2003 and Windows Mobile

Last update: Jun 6, 2007

There is now a much easier way to import a certificate.
You can import a certificate directly from a PKCS#12 or PFX file ("P12imprt"). Source code available under the GNU Public License.

1.1 Introduction

I have made Crtimprt, a program for Pocket PC 2003, Windows Mobile 5.0 and Windows Mobile 6. It allows you to import: Once an X.509 personal certificate is installed, you can use it to for user authentication on the Pocket PC. The imported certificate can be used in the following scenarios:
(Skip the smalltalk, get me straight to the installation procedure!)

The page that you are now reading describes how you can import a certificate and corresponding private key to Pocket PC 2003 (including Second Edition), Windows Mobile 5.0 or Windows Mobile 6. The reason I made the Crtimprt program was that I wanted to connect with Pocket PC 2003 to a Linux VPN Server. It turns out that Crtimprt can be used for other purposes too. The program is based on the ENROLL sample code included with Microsoft's "Software Development Kit (SDK) for Windows Mobile 2003-based Pocket PCs". Kiko Vives Aragonés and Antonia Saez Bernal have made a similar program called PPCCertImport which is not based on Microsoft sample code. You can find it on Kiko's webpage.

You do not need Crtimprt (or P12imprt or PFXimprt) in the scenarios that are listed here. Make sure that what you want to achieve is not listed there, otherwise you will be doing a lot of work and it will be all for nothing!

Crtimprt has been tested on a number of Pocket PC devices (see list below). I do not own a Pocket PC myself so I'm interested in both positive and negative feedback, especially if you tried Crtimprt on a model not listed below. Let me know if it worked or not!

Here is a schematic of the procedure for importing your PKCS#12 (a.k.a. PFX) file to Pocket PC 2003 or Windows Mobile. All steps except the last one are executed on your PC with OpenSSL.

usercrt.pem ----+--->  usercrt.p7b   ......
                |                     |                         : (crtimprt.exe)
user.pfx ----+---> cacrt.pem ----->+                         :---------------> Pocket PC
                |                                               :
userkey.pem -------->  userkey.pvk   .....:

My other program P12imprt is much easier to use. The P12imprt procedure is:               

user.pfx --------------------------------------------------------------------> Pocket PC

1.2 Author

The author of this document is Jacco de Leeuw (contact me). Corrections, additions, extra information etc. are much appreciated.

2. Contents

3. Background information

Pocket PC 2003, Windows Mobile 5.0 for Pocket PC, and Windows Mobile 6, which are often abbreviated to WM5.0 and WM6 respectively, are based on a light-weight variant of Windows called Windows CE. As mentioned in the introduction, there are three main applications of Personal Certificates: L2TP/IPsec, EAP-TLS and web client authentication.

Read this section on the P12imprt webpage for more background information.

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4. Obtaining a certificate and a private key

Read this section on the P12imprt webpage if you don't know how to obtain or create a personal certificate and corresponding private key.

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5. Converting the certificate(s) and private key

Your certificate is probably in one of these three formats:
  1. One single PKCS#12 file containing private key and certificate(s). In that case, you need to extract these first from the PKCS#12 file before continuing with the next steps.
  2. Private key is in a PEM file. Certificate(s) are in other PEM file(s). This is often so when the keys are generated with OpenSSL. In that case, you can skip the PKCS#12 extraction step and go straight to the PEM conversion.
  3. Certificate requested from Microsoft Certificate Services: private key is in PVK format. Certificate(s) in .cer/.spc format(?). In that case, you're almost set. You can skip most of the conversion steps.
Before you can import your certificate with Crtimprt you will need to convert it to an intermediate format.

5.1 Extracting from PKCS#12

If your certificate is in PKCS#12 format, you will have to extract several components from the PKCS#12 file. You will need OpenSSL for that. It is free and included with many Unix/Linux versions and Cygwin. If you prefer to use Windows or if you don't have access to a Unix/Linux system, you can use the Windows version of OpenSSL. In that case, download the Win32 OpenSSL Installer (get version 0.9.7 or higher). It will install the OpenSSL files to C:\OPENSSL. The OPENSSL.EXE executable will be in the BIN directory. It is probably a good idea to add this directory to the PATH variable if you are running Windows:


PKCS#12 files often have the extension .p12 or .pfx. So, let's assume that your PKCS#12 file is called user.pfx. If the name is different replace user.pfx with whatever the name is of your PKCS#12 file. Open a DOS Command Prompt and execute the following commands (lines starting with '#' are comments and should not be entered):

# (Tip: use copy and paste for these commands)
# Extract the user certificate contained within the PKCS#12 file:
openssl pkcs12 -in user.pfx -nokeys -clcerts -out usercrt.pem

# Extract the CA certificate(s) contained within the PKCS#12 file:
openssl pkcs12 -in user.pfx -nokeys -cacerts -out cacrt.pem

# Extract the private key contained within the PKCS#12 file.
# (Warning: the resulting file userkey.pem is not encrypted!
# Don't keep it around for longer than strictly needed!).

openssl pkcs12 -in user.pfx -nocerts -nodes -out userkey.pem

5.2 Converting from PEM

At this stage I assume you have three PEM files called userkey.pem (private key) , usercrt.pem (the user certificate) and cacrt.pem (the CA certificate(s)). PEM is a text based format, Base64 encoded. The private key will have to be converted to PVK, a Microsoft proprietary format. The certificates are to be converted into PKCS#7. For the PVK conversion, you need the pvktool utility by Dr. Stephen N. Henson, who is a member of the OpenSSL team. He has reverse engineered the PVK format. Unix/Linux source code and a Windows version of the PVK program are available on his PVK information page. For your convenience I have made the following RPMs, in case you run Linux. They have been signed with my PGP key. The upcoming OpenSSL version 0.99 will contain support for PVK files, so if you use that version you do not have to use the pvktool utility.
The three PEM files are converted to the intermediate formats with the following OpenSSL commands:

# Convert the certificate files to PKCS#7:
# (Note: the second keyword is crl2pkcs7 and not cr12pkcs7. Lower case L.)
openssl crl2pkcs7 -certfile usercrt.pem -certfile cacrt.pem -nocrl -outform PEM -out usercrt.p7b

# Convert the private key file from PEM to the Microsoft
# proprietary PVK format (use pvktool utility mentioned on webpage).
# (Warning: the resulting file userkey.pvk
is not encrypted!
Don't keep it around for longer than strictly needed!).
pvk -exc -in userkey.pem -topvk -nocrypt -out userkey.pvk

New in Crtimprt v0.3 is that the parameter -exc is required (see below).

5.3 The result: files in PVK and PKCS#7 format

You should now have two files: a PVK file and a PKCS#7 file. If the PKCS#7 file is not in PEM format (text) but in binary DER format (because you obtained it directly from Microsoft Certificate Services), you will need to convert it to PEM first. You can skip this step if you used the crl2pkcs7 command from the previous section.

OPTIONAL: not needed if you are converting from a PKCS#12 file.
# Convert PKCS#7 from DER to PEM.
openssl pkcs7 -in usercrt.cer -inform DER -outform PEM -out usercrt.p7b

At this stage I assume you have a PVK file called userkey.pvk and a PKCS#7 file in PEM format called usercrt.p7b. The next step is to import these files with Crtimprt.

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6.1 Downloading Crtimprt

"Crtimprt" consists of a Pocket PC 2003 ARM executable called crtimprt.exe and an (optional) configuration file called crtimprt.cfg. They are distributed in a zip file. The zip file also contains a sample certificate file usercrt.p7b, a sample private key file userkey.pvk and my source code (a patch, actually).
All zip files have been signed with my PGP key.

(Warning: never use my sample certificate on a live network and expect things to be secure. You have the private key, but so does everybody else!)

6.2 Changelog

The CHANGELOG can be found here. The only change between v0.3 and v0.2 is that the default "key spec" has changed from AT_SIGNATURE to AT_KEYEXCHANGE. What this means for you is that personal certificates imported with Crtimprt v0.3 can now also be used with S/MIME secure e-mail. Note that if you are upgrading from Crtimprt v0.2 to v0.3 you will probably have to write a new .pvk file. Otherwise you may get the error message: "Private key type differs from DW_KEY_SPEC".

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7. Using Crtimprt on Pocket PC 2003 / Windows Mobile

Here is how to use Crtimprt to import private keys and certificates to the Pocket PC:
View the certificates that were imported to the Pocket PC device:
Use File Explorer to delete the files userkey.pvk and usercrt.p7b from both the Pocket PC and the desktop PC. They are not strictly needed anymore, now that they have been imported to the PPC. You might also want to delete userkey.pem on the desktop PC because it too contains an unencrypted private key.

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8. Status of Crtimprt

The current status of Crtimprt is as follows. I received reports that Crtimprt works on (at least) the following Pocket PC 2003, Windows Mobile 5.0, Windows Mobile 6 and Windows CE devices:
If Crtimprt does or does not work on your Pocket PC, it would be great if you could contact me, especially if your model is not listed above! Note that some Smartphones are software locked, so Crtimprt may not work on your Smartphone even if the generic model is listed above. Please state your cellular network if you contact me to report success or failure!

Importing password protected PVK files is not supported. I think it is not too difficult to support, but at this stage I did not want to bother. According to Dr. Henson, the PVK encryption is weak anyway. I noticed that Pocket PC does not ask for a password when it needs the private key to set up a VPN connection. So if your PPC gets stolen, the perpetrators can abuse your client certificate to gain access (that's why it is a bad idea to have the PPC remember your VPN password such as in this screenshot). Microsoft has been notified of this problem but it is unknown if and when they will fix this.

By default, I use the extension .p7b for certificate files. On desktop Windows this extension is reserved for PKCS#7 files in DER format (binary). However, I use it for PKCS#7 files in the PEM format (which is base64 text). I do not know what the "standard extension" is for PKCS#7 files in PEM format, so I simply picked .p7b. File Explorer on desktop Windows shows files with this extension as certificate icons, but if they are in PEM format you cannot import them.

Once the certificate(s) and the private key were imported, I could make L2TP/IPsec connections with the Pocket PC emulator to Openswan and Windows Server 2003. (Windows 2000 Server not tested but I assume it works with Pocket PC hardware. It will not work with the emulator because Windows 2000 Server does not support NAT-Traversal). I also received reports that imported certificates can be used for client authentication to websites.

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9. Troubleshooting

In case the program reports an error: here is a list of Windows CryptoAPI error codes. These are probably not very helpful if you are not a programmer. Contact me by e-mail if you really can't get it working.

9. 1 Problem: "Unable to add Root Cert to Root Cert store"

Some users reported an error when importing their certificate ("Unable to add Root Cert to Root Cert store"). The Personal Certificate was imported but the Root Certificate was not. This happens when the Root Certificate Store is locked by the device vendor. The Personal Certificate is installed but without a matching root certificate it will not be valid. Especially Smartphones are prone to this problem: adding a Root Certificate is a "privileged operation". This means that your Smartphone may not only have a hardware lock (SIM lock, provider lock) but also a software lock! Telecom operators and Smartphone manufacturers do not want you to install applications that are not approved by them. They claim that it is for your own good, so that viruses cannot run on your device and run up your phone bill. This is all part of the whole Digital Rights Management / Trusted Computing situation that you already see on the Xbox and Windows Vista as well. In the future you can expect to see this problem more and more if vendors get their way with this. To solve your problem, you might have to contact your operator to unlock your device. For instance, Orange has an unlock page for their SPV. More information can be found on the Smartphone2000 website. Microsoft has a Knowledge Base article Q841060 where you can download a utility called SPAddCert, but they too refer you to your mobile operator if the Smartphone happens to be software-locked. Some device manufacturers do not supply an unlock utility but they do provide a (signed) Registry editor with which you can unlock the device, for instance the HTC models (i-mate, Qtek, XDA etc.). An alternative would be to buy a personal certificate from one of the 5 'standard' root CAs in the certificate store (Cybertrust, GlobalSign, Entrust, Thawte, Verisign). Unfortunately this alternative will probably not work because it seems that those 5 root certificates are used to issue server certificates, not personal certificates.

Windows Mobile based Smartphones won't even run executables or .cab files unless they are signed. That means you will not be able to install your own root certificate or run Crtimprt on these Smartphones. In an MSDN blog entry called "How can I add root certs to my Windows Mobile device?", Microsoft writes: "We have definitely gotten the message that a lot of customers find themselves in this situation and we feel your pain." Ha! We feel your pain... what a right bunch of hypocrites!

9.2 Problem: "CertFindCertificateInStore failed"

You run crtimprt.exe and you receive subsequent errors: "CertFindCertificateInStore failed", "CertAdd Failed" and "AddCertToStore Failed".

This error may occur when there is a mismatch between the PVK file and the PKCS#7 file. In other words, the private key and the public key do not correspond. Make sure you copied the correct usercrt.p7b and userkey.pvk files to your Pocket PC. Also make sure that you are not mixing files from two different certificates. You can check this by running the following commands which should show the exact same number twice:

openssl x509 -modulus -noout -in usercrt.pem
openssl rsa -inform PEM -noout -modulus -in userkey.pem

You might also get the "CertFindCertificateInStore failed" error when the PKCS#7 file (usercrt.p7b) does not contain a personal certificate, or is empty. You can check this by running the command:

openssl pkcs7 -in usercrt.p7b -print_certs -noout

Normally you should see two certificates listed (perhaps three if you root CA is using an intermediate CA). For instance, the sample usercrt.p7b file included with contains these two certificates:



Try to import the sample certificates included with, i.e. the files usercrt.p7b and userkey.pvk. Be sure to use a different container name every time you import a certificate. If this works, there must be something wrong with (the conversion of) your certificate.

Don't forget to delete the (sample) certificates you don't need, once you got it working.

9.3 Problem: "CryptAcquireContext Failed"

If  you get this error, it means that a problem was detected even before the private key or the certificates were read. So the usercrt.p7b or the userkey.pvk file are not to blame.

Did you change CERT_STORE or KEY_PROVIDER_NAME in the crtimprt.cfg file, by any chance? Normally it is not needed to change these parameters. You can leave these set to the default value.

One user reported that he had to hard reset his Pocket PC. Then this error disappeared. Perhaps the certificate store was hosed.

9.4 Known problem with Smartphone 2003

You managed to import a Personal Certificate on Smartphone 2003 but when you use Pocket Internet Explorer (PocketIE) to connect to a website that requires certificate authentication, you get an HTTP error ("403.7 Forbidden: Client certificate required").

This is a known issue in the Internet support functionality (WININET) in Smartphone 2003, according to Marcus Perryman from Microsoft. I take it that the Personal Certificate can still be used for EAP-TLS and L2TP/IPsec VPNs but I am not sure because I do not own a Smartphone. There is also a Usenet discussion about this problem.

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10. Advantages and disadvantages

Crtimprt has similar advantages and disadvantages as P12imprt. Plus:

Advantages of Crtimprt:

Disadvantages of Crtimprt:

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11. Crtimprt source code

11.1 Licensing details

The source code of Crtimprt is included in the Zip file as Open Source. This file contains only the changes that were made by me. It is not actually the full source code that you need to compile the executable. For legal reasons I made a patch against the ENROLL source code. The ENROLL sample program is included with the SDK for Windows Mobile 2003-based Pocket PCs and can be found in "Program Files/Windows CE Tools/wce420/POCKET PC 2003/Samples/Win32/Enroll". If you apply my patch against the ENROLL sample code you will have the full source code. I did not want to redistribute the modified ENROLL source code because of Microsoft's EULA which was not terribly clear. For instance, one has to comply with a Section 1(d) which does not even exist! Besides, you already have the ENROLL source code when you install the PPC 2003 SDK. You can then use a program such as GNU patch (Win32 version) to apply my patch against the ENROLL code. This will result in the full source code for Crtimprt.

If you are not able to create the Crtimprt source code using GNU patch, I have the following suggestions:
11.2 Using the source code

The source code of Crtimprt compiles under eMbedded Visual C++ 4.0. You also need ServicePack 3 for eVC++ or higher (SP4 recommened). Additionally you need the "SDK for Windows Mobile 2003 for Pocket PCs". The code will also compile under Visual Studio 2005. Unfortunately it seems that VS2005 no longer contains the ENROLL sample code, so you will have to download and install eVC++ 4.0 and the WM2003 SDK in order to extract the ENROLL project. Again, I wished I could simply distribute the Crtimprt source code as a project but Microsoft's licensing rules seem to forbid this.

Most of the patch consist of commenting out code that is not needed. Even more code could have been removed: the base64 routines are not needed if I had decided to import certificates in DER format (which is the default on desktop Windows anyway) instead of PEM format. If your certificates are in PEM, you can convert them easily with OpenSSL: openssl crl2pkcs7 -in usercrt.pem -outform DER -out usercrt.p7b. Come to think of it, much of the Enroll code is fairly straight forward anyway (except perhaps the parts that deal with the PKCS#7 certificate store) so should Microsoft sic the lawyers on me for violating the EULA, one could rewrite the program without Microsoft code. In fact, Kiko Vives has already made such a program so lawyer-siccing would not have the intended result.

The Microsoft documentation says that the CERT_STORE_PROV_PKCS7 flag is not supported by the CertOpenStore() function on any Pocket PC device. This means that ENROLL and Crtimprt should not work on any device! In practice however, Crtimprt does seem to work on most models.

My apologies for the sloppy code. It looks too much like Unix code. What it does is read in the PVK file, and strip off the PVK magic word and other blurb. What remains is a "key BLOB" which is imported using the CryptImportKey() system call. Then the PKCS#7 file is read into a buffer. It is converted from base64 to DER and imported using such calls as CertOpenStore() and CertAddCertificateContextToStore(). The certificate and private key are associated with eachother using the CertSetCertificateContextProperty() call.

It's just a quick and dirty hack. Is there anyone with Windows CE / Pocket PC programming skills who is willing to clean it up?

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12. Web enrolment

Below is the web enrolment technique. I mention it here only for the sake of completeness, because I find it a bit too limited and much too convoluted. Skip to the next section if you are not interested. Web enrolment on Pocket PC devices is also described on MSDN (here and here).

Web enrolment on Windows 200x uses ActiveX, which is only supported by desktop Windows versions. Microsoft has come up with the following solution for Pocket PC: a separate ENROLL program for PPC which sends a certificate request to the webserver and retrieves the certificate from it after the CA has issued it.

The procedure is as follows:
The procedure did not work for me when I tried to enrol at a Windows Server 2003 R2. I got a "Cert Denied!" error with a dump of the HTML code that could not be parsed.

There might be a way to get certificates without using the ENROLL.EXE program. This goes by proxy of a desktop Windows machine. On the Pocket PC you use Pocket Internet Explorer to surf to Then you save the certificate request to a PKCS#10 file. The PKCS#10 file is transferred to the desktop PC and there submitted to the CA. The certificate is then transferred to the Pocket PC and installed. (From the lack of details you can notice that I have not tried this myself).

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13. Discussion

13.1 Importing PKCS#12 files directly

Windows Mobile 5.0 was released in 2005 and it supports the PFXImportCertStore() function. This means that it can import PKCS#12 files directly. This programming interface was absent in all previous versions of Windows Mobile so this is why I made Crtimprt. Windows Mobile 5.0 still does not have an option to import PKCS#12 certificates, but it is supported in Windows Mobile 6.

Of course, since PFXImportCertStore() is now supported in Windows Mobile, you can write a program that imports a certificate from a PKCS#12 file. Another option would be to write a program so that you can tap a .P12 or .PFX file in File Explorer on Windows Mobile and then import the file (like on desktop Windows). This would require a context menu extension handler for File Explorer.

I have now made a program that can import PKCS#12 files directly on Windows Mobile 2003 and Windows Mobile devices. P12imprt has been tested on the Windows Mobile emulator and a number of actual Windows Mobile devices. The GUI of the program is minimal.

13.2 Misc. remarks

The web enrolment procedure described above is very convoluted. The Crtimprt approach seems better, if you prefer a non-Windows CA and VPN server.

An even better solution would be to write a program with which you can import a PKCS#12 file. Then you can avoid several cumbersome conversion steps. Unfortunately, Microsoft has crippled the Pocket PC CryptoAPI: they conveniently left out PfxImportCertstore() and similar routines in Pocket PC 2003 and earlier, possibly due to space constraints on the PPC (or perhaps because of some other strategic reason -- who knows?). They also left out a PKCS#8 private key import option. So my idea was to use the Windows CE port of OpenSSL. OpenSSL has been ported to Windows CE (and thus also Pocket PC) by Steven Reddie. The result of this approach is P12imprt. There are also other programs available on the Internet that can import certificates, such as this one, but these probably don't work on Pocket PC or can only import certificates and no private keys.

I get the impression that Pocket PC 2003 does not actually delete the private key when you use the Certificates applet to delete a particular certificate from the "Personal" certificate store. If this is true, it might be a security problem. Note that Microsoft has removed the "Delete" button in Pocket PC 2003 Second Edition, Windows Mobile 5.0 and higher. In these new Windows Mobile versions you can delete a (personal or root) certificate by tapping and holding the name in the list.

Crtimprt has been reported to work on Pocket PC Phone Edition as such as the O2 XDA, the iPAQ 6315 and the RoverPC S1. It may also work with other Pocket PC hardware such as Windows Mobile-based Smartphones (Orange SPV etc.) but I am not sure. Send me one and I'll test it :-).

I would not be surprised if Crtimprt can be used for other Windows CE devices as well, such as Pocket PC 2002. But I have not tried this. You will probably need a different compiler than eVC++ 4.0. According to an MSDN article, Windows CE .NET 4.2+ has a "control panel utility" that can import a certificate and a private key in PVK format but this utility is not included with PocketPC. PPC2003 Second Edition (released in 2004) still cannot import a certificate from a file.

Crtimprt can be used for 802.1x/EAP-TLS. I have received reports that it works but I have not tested it personally. EAP-TLS is supported by many vendors. It requires certificates for both the server and users. Some other EAP authentication protocols such as LEAP (Cisco), PEAP (Microsoft) and TTLS (Funk) also require certificates but only for the server, not for users. In those cases you do not need Crtimprt: you either buy a server certificate from one of the five CAs configured in Pocket PC 2003 (Cybertrust, GlobalSign, Entrust, Thawte, Verisign) or you use File Explorer to install your own CA certificate.

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14. NetFront browser

The NetFront browser for Pocket PC ships with a built-in certificate manager. You can access it under the menu 'Tools -> Browser Setting -> Security'. The NetFront certificate manager can import PKCS#12 files, single (root) certificates in DER format, multiple (root) certificates in PKCS#7 format and private keys (not sure what format). NetFront is commercial but a time-limited and crippled version can be downloaded for free.

Unfortunately the NetFront certificate manager is separate from the Pocket PC native certificate applet. So if you import a (personal or root) certificate with NetFront, the certificate can only be used by NetFront itself. The certificate cannot be used by Pocket IE, L2TP/IPsec or EAP-TLS.

The NetFront certificate manager can be a great alternative to Crtimprt if you are already unhappy with Pocket IE and you only want to use web client authentication.

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15. Acknowledgements and disclaimers

Thanks to Aleksander Martin, Valery Pryamikov, Andreas Steffen, Kiko Vives and Steve from Cambridge for their help! One person wished to remain anonymous. He reported to me that he had made a program similar to Crtimprt but unfortunately he could not release his implementation due to company policy. Thanks also to the anonymous Microsoft employee(s) (Igor D.?) who made the ENROLL sample program (though they should have included a certificate import utility in Pocket PC in the first place).

My crack team of lawyers advised me to include the following text. This page shows screenshots of an iPAQ device but this does not necessarily mean an endorsement of or by HP/Compaq. I disclaim everything anyway :-). Windows, Windows Mobile, Pocket PC and Windows CE are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. The author of this webpage is not associated with Microsoft or any other company mentioned on the page. All trademarks are owned by their respective companies.

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16. Revision history

Jun 6, 2006: Released v0.3. Imported certs now also work with S/MIME.
May 24, 2006: Also runs on Windows Mobile 6.
Feb 8, 2006: Created P12imprt: import PKCS#12 files on both Pocket PC 2003 and Windows Mobile 5.0!
Jan 31, 2006: Created PFXimprt: you can now import PKCS#12 files on Windows Mobile 5.0!
Aug 8, 2005: The NetFront browser for Pocket PC can import certificates, but only for its own use.
May 30, 2005: Crtimprt runs on Windows Mobile 5.0 (on the emulator, at least).
May 18, 2005: Some Windows CE devices apparently do ship with a certificate panel utility. But Windows Mobile 5.0 Pocket PC devices do not. Unknown if they support PFXImportCertStore().
May 12, 2005: Windows Mobile 5.0 announced. Supports PFXImportCertStore()! New emulator released.
Apr 4, 2005: Known PocketIE problem with SmartPhone 2003.
Dec 26, 2004: Uploaded v0.2, mainly due to expired sample certs in v0.1.
Nov 24, 2004: Added Troubleshooting section.
Oct 14, 2004: movianMail will be discontinued from Oct 31, 2004.
Oct 3, 2004: Some Toshiba Pocket PC models ship with a certificate import tool. Kudos!
Mar 25, 2004: PocketPC 2003 Second Edition and eVC++ SP3 released: no visible changes in the VPN client.
Feb 23, 2004: Professional Edition (iPAQ 1900 series and upgraded PPC2002 models) does not support L2TP/IPsec.
Feb 20, 2004: Linked to Kiko Vives' webpage which contains a similar program.
Feb 12, 2004: Extract user and CA certs separately from PKCS#12. The .p7b file should also contain the CA cert(s).
Jan 16, 2004: Previously reported problem does not occur when connecting to Windows Server 2003 L2TP/IPsec server. Bug is not in Crtimprt.
Dec 28, 2003: Everything works! But there is a problem with some certificates when connecting to Openswan. Packet fragmentation?

Jacco de Leeuw